1. Arminius

Jacobus Arminius (October 10, 1560 - October 19, 1609), the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period, professor in theology at the University of Leiden. He wrote many books and treatises on theology, and his views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement. The Synod of Dort (1618-9) decided the five points of Calvinism in response to Arminius's teaching.

2. Book of Common Prayer

The original book attributed to Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, was published in 1549 in the reign of Edward VI. It folowed the break with Rome at the English Reformation. The 1549 book was soon succeeded by a revision in 1552. It was used only for a few months before Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship in 1553. Mary died in 1558, and in 1559 Elizabeth I reintroduced the 1552 book with a few modifications, including some of the 1549 Communion Service.

In 1604, James I ordered some further changes, including the addition to the Catechism of Alexander Nowell of a section on the Sacraments. Another major revision was published in 1662, and this edition has remained the official prayer book of the Church of England (the BCP). Recently a modernised version, called Common Worship (CW) is often used in English parish churches.

3. Beaver

A beaver hat is a hat made from felted beaver fur. They were fashionable across much of Europe during the period 1550-1850 because the soft yet resilient material could be easily combed to make a variety of hat shapes (including the familiar top hat).[1] The demand for beaver pelts in Europe ultimately drove the animal to near-extinction. The beaver has very recently been observed again in the wild in England. Calvin 1509-1564

4. Institutio Christianae Religionis

The "Institutio Christianae Religionis" is a textbook on the Protestant faith covering the doctrines of the church and its sacraments, and a the doctrine of justification by faith alone. It particularly attacked the teachings of Roman Catholicism. It was first published, in Latin, in 1536, in French in 1541, with later difinitive editions in Latin(1559) and French(160). It is still regarded as a primary text of Protestantism.

5. Copintank: a sugar-loaf hat

A capotain, capatain or copotain is a tall-crowned, narrow-brimmed, slightly conical hat, usually black, worn by men and women from the 1590s into the mid-seventeenth century in England and northwestern Europe. Earlier capotains had rounded crowns; later, the crown was flat at the top.

The capotain is especially associated with Puritan costume in England in the years leading up to the English Civil War and during the years of the Commonwealth. It is also commonly called a Flat Topped Hat and a Pilgrim hat, the latter for its association with the Pilgrims that settled Plymouth Colony in the 1620s.

6. Erastus

Erastus, Thomas, 1524-83, Swiss Protestant theologian, also a physician Opposed to the Calvinist doctrine, the Presbyterian church discipline and government were introduced in Heidelberg in 1570.Much controversy has arisen over his treatise, Explicatio, written in 1568 and posthumously published in 1589. It declares that excommunication is not a divine ordinance and that punishment of sins should be left to civil authorities. Erastianism now represents the dominance of civil authority in all punitive measures ancomplete dominance of the state over the church.

7. Clothing Fabrics of the English Civil War


Ignoring for this article headwear and footwear, the common man of the period wore a shirt, breeches, doublet and coat. It is very probable that most soldiers during the Civil War were never uniformed (see War in the West) and even major armies such as the Earl of Essex's, the national London-based field army of Parliament, only received a coat and shirt. They had no issue of breeches for the first two years of the war. The Royalist Oxford Army and Hopton's West Country forces did not receive comprehensive suits until the summer of 1643, and then only breeches and coats - no shirts and doublets. Most soldiers were in civilian clothing, with at most a military coat or coat and breeches for the Oxford and later New Model Armies. The distinction is important as the military coats and breeches were made of different fabrics to civilians. Before regiments rush out to re-equip, check on your unit's background.


The main materials recorded for common men's breeches are russet and leather with occasional frieze.


Civilian coats were normally of frieze lined with woollen cotton for winter wear and of russet for summer use. Military coats were typically of broadcloth lined with baize or serge for the New Model and probably the Oxford Army in 1643 and Essex's army, but the northern issues were mainly kersies.


These were normally not made of wool. In a sample of 23 civilian doublets owned by common people only 3 were of wool and then very light stuff - 'new draperies' using worsted cloths. 4 were of sackcloth or canvas, 8 of fustian and 8 of leather.


These were generally sleeveless garments made either of frieze as body warmers or leather for protection when working in bushes etc. They kept the arms free, allowing farm or other manual work, but gave little protection against rain and were probably usually left at home rather than being taken on campaign.


These were of flax or hemp (lockram) linen.



Common women's skirts were always made of wool, probably because of the risk of fire. Greasy linen flapping into a fire burns easily, while wool is reluctant to catch and gives a burnt hair smell. Russet is very frequently mentioned, although red skirts were also common. Upperbodies - The attached upper parts of petticoats covering the chest rather than the legs were often of a different material such as canvas.


These performed the same function as the male doublet and were made of similar materials.


This was a woman's main outdoor weatherproof garment similar in function to a greatcoat and typically made from frieze or sometimes russet.


Woollen cotton is mentioned as being used for children's clothes. It was softer and more stretchy, which may have been an advantage with growing bodies.

8. Fabrics


Undyed fabric in the natural fleece colours - typically greys and browns. About 14 oz per sq yard and well fulled to give a weatherproof surface.


Undyed fabric in the natural fleece colours - typically greys and browns. Very heavy weight (about 28 oz per sq yard) and very heavily fulled to give a dense weatherproof surface. The inner surface would be friezed or teased up to give better insulation.

(Woollen) Cotton

A more open weave fabric in natural fleece, grey or white. White cotton might be dyed with weld, dyers greenweed, madder or woad.

Cotton at the period (woollen cotton) referred to the finish applied to a particular type of loose woollen cloth which involved fluffing up the surface. What is now called cotton was then called calico (derived from Calcutta), although this could mean anything from fine linen substitute to sailcloth. Vegetable cotton was also a component in fustian with a variety of other materials such as wool, linen or silk, depending on the type of fustian. Presumably after our period someone applied the cotton finish to vegetable cotton and the name transferred over.


Generally white or dyed kersey was a poor man's broadcloth. Twill weave about 16-22oz per sq yard, 48 threads per inch with the weave visible. Surviving blue dyed samples in pristine condition are in the British Library.


This was a luxury export product made from white fleeces and then usually dyed, which made it suitable for uniform coats. Weights were about 22-24 oz per sq yard and the surface appearance similar to moleskin.


Wearing leathers would normally be oil and alum tanned and should not be confused with the oak bark tanned shoe leathers. Deer skin occurs frequently and is very soft and supple.

9. Dudley Fenner (1558-1587)

was an English puritan divine, one of the most extreme: He believed that it was "lawful to take away the life of a king". He is credited with being one of the originators of English Puritan theology.

He was born in Kent in 1558 and educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge.

His major work was "Sacra theologia: sive veritas quae est secundum pietatem" (Geneva, 1585). He wrote a number of works which explained Reformist beliefs and attacked opposing views. He also published some texts on other topics, including "The artes of logike and rethorike" ("The order of housholde"), "A briefe treatise upon the first table of the lawe", "The whole doctrine of the sacramentes", and "A short and profitable treatise, of lawfull and unlawfull recreations"(1584).

During his life he was in continual conflict with the Elizabethan church, refusing to sign three new articles of religious conformity. He received ordination in Holland according to rite of the Reformed church while in Antwerp, and on his return to England became curate of Cranbrook in 1583. In the same year, however, he was one of seventeen Kentish ministers suspended for refusing to sign an acknowledgment of the Queen's supremacy and of the authority of the Prayer Book and articles. He was imprisoned for a time, but eventually regained his liberty and returned to Holland.

After a short life he died in 1587 at Middleburgh in Holland, where he was a chaplain in the Reformed church.

10. Preston

Preston's main high streets are Fishergate and Friargate

The only inns (actually public houses) in Friargate at present are the Greyfriar and the Black Horse. If there was an Angel in Friargate, it no longer exists, But there is an important hostelry called the Angel at 39 Lune St. which is very close to Friargate and just across the modern A59 Ringway road. There would have been easy access from Friargate. I suspect Neill used this Angel.

10. Holborn

inner London with gate into City. legal centre, Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Chancery Lane pronounced hawb'n

11. Kirtle

A kirtle (sometimes called cotte, cotehardie) is a garment worn by men and women in the Middle Ages or, later, a one-piece garment worn by women from the later Middle Ages into the Baroque period. The kirtle was typically worn over a chemise or smock which acted as a slip and under the formal outer garment or gown/surcoat.

Kirtles were part of fashionable attire into the middle sixteenth century, and remained part of country or middle-class clothing into the seventeenth century.

Kirtles began as loose garments without a waist seam, changing to tightly fitted supportive garments in the 14th century. Later kirtles could be constructed by combining a fitted bodice with a skirt gathered or pleated into the waist seam. Kirtles could lace up the front, back or side-back, with some rare cases of side lacing, all depending on the fashion of the day/place and what kind of gown was to be worn over it. Kirtles could be embellished with a variety of decorations including gold, silk, tassels, and knobs.

12. Lambeth

inner London, south of the Thames, centred of Brixton

The first church on the site was built before the Norman Conquest, and was integral to the religious centre established by the Archbishops of Canterbury in the twelfth century. The structure was deconsecrated in 1972.

Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in England, in North Lambeth, on the south bank of the River Thames, 200 m south-east of the Palace of Westminster which has the Houses of Parliament on the opposite bank. It was acquired by the archbishopric around 1200 AD and has the largest collection of records of the church in its library.

13. Lombard

Lombard banking refers to the historical use of the term 'Lombard' for a pawn shop in the Middle Ages, a type of banking that originated with the prosperous northern Italian region of Lombardy. The term was sometimes used in a derogatory sense, implying the unlawful business of usury.

Pope Leo the Great forbade charging interest on loans (usury) by canon law, however, it was not forbidden to take collateral on loans. Pawn shops thus operate on the basis of a contract that fixes in advance the 'fine' for not respecting the nominal term of the 'interest free' loan.

14. Mockado

a woollen pile fabric made in imitation of silk velvet from the mid-sixteenth century.

Mockado was usually constructed with a woollen pile on a linen or worsted wool warp and woollen weft, although the ground fabric could be any combination of wool, linen, and silk.

Mockado was introduced to England from Flanders in the mid-sixteenth century. Dutch and Walloon weavers fleeing Spanish rule were creating mockadoes combining silk and linen with combed woollens in the weaving center of Norwich by 1571. Mockado was always a rough fabric, and by the 1580s, the term "mockado" was synonymous with "inferior" or "tawdry".

15. Porringer

a shallow bowl, between 4 and 6 inches in diameter, and 1.5" to 3" deep; the form originates in the medieval period in Europe and they were made in wood, ceramic, pewter and silver. They had flat, horizontal handles. They have two handles on opposite sides on which the owner's initials were sometimes engraved. They occasionally came with a lid.

16. Preston

provides evidence of Roman activity in the area, one Roman road led to a camp at Walton-le-Dale, another, via Ribchester and Mitton (Whalley) led to the Aire gap through the Pennines (Crown and Mitre). The Angles established Preston; the name Preston is derived from Old English words meaning "Priest settlement" and in the Domesday Book appears as "Prestune". During the Middle Ages, Preston formed a parish and township in the hundred of Amounderness and was granted a Guild Merchant charter in 1179, giving it the status of a market town. Textiles have been produced in Preston since the middle of the 13th century, when locally produced wool was woven in people's houses. Flemish weavers who settled in the area during the 14th century helped to develop the industry. Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born in Preston. The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred by King Henry II upon the Burgesses of Preston in a charter of 1179; the associated Preston Guild is a civic celebration held every 20 years and 2012 is another Guild year. It is the only Guild still celebrated in the UK and as such is unique. Roger Nowell had to attend the Guild Celebration in 1612. Guild week is always started by the opening of the Guild Court, which since the 16th century has traditionally been on the first Monday after the feast of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist celebrated on 29 August.

Query: I seem to remeber that somewhere in Mist Roger is away at the Preston Guikd. Does the timing in Mist Over Pendle agree with 29 August?

17. Read

Read village developed in the 16th century along the main mediaeval road between Whalley and Padiham. It seems that Neill and Margery took the climb up the old Forest Road over Read Old Bridge over Sabden Brook and up onto the ridge above Sabden, so they could look north-east along the Sabden Brook valley to the main bulk of Pendle, or across the valley to Jesse Knave Grave at Daylight Gate before dropping down the south side of the ridge to Read Hall.

The Battle of Read Old Bridge was fought in 1643 between the Royalist and Parliamentarian forces. The Royalist force of about 4,000 men, commanded by the Earl of Derby, had taken the village of Whalley. The Parliamentary force, numbering only about 400 men, were positioned near Read Old Bridge. As the Royalist forces approached the bridge they faced withering musket fire causing them to retreat in confusion. The Royalists gave up Whalley; about 400 largely untrained soldiers had beaten 4,000, winning Lancashire for Parliament.

Read Hall and Park was the seat of the Nowell family from the 14th century and Roger Nowell was a magistrate at the time of the Lancashire Witches in 1612 sending them to Lancaster for trial and eventual execution.

18. River Ribble

The Ribble begins at the confluence of the Gayle Beck and Cam Beck near the famous viaduct at Ribblehead, in the shadow of the Yorkshire three peaks. It is the only river rising in Yorkshire which flows westward. It flows through Settle, Clitheroe, Whalley, Ribchester and Preston, before emptying into the Irish Sea between Lytham St. Annes and Southport, a length of 75 miles (121 km). The rivers Hodder and Calder which join the river between Mitton and Whalley give rise to the saying:

Hodder and Calder, Ribble and rain

All meet together in Mitton Demesne

At Mitton is "Cromwells Bridge" over the Hodder which Cromwell and his troops used on the way to the battle of Preston (see Witch Bane). Cromwell stayed the night at Stonyhurst, with Lady Sherburne, whose husband was out fighting on the Royalist side.

The Ribble marked the northernmost extent of the ancient kingdom of Mercia. At the time of the Domesday Book, the river formed the northern boundary of an area of land (known as Inter Ripam et Mersam) that was included in the Domesday information for Cheshire, though it was not formally part of the county of Cheshire. In 830 Athelstan bought this area from the Viking settlers at his own personal expense.

The Ribble was known in Roman times as the Belisama, possibly giving its name to Samlesbury (home od the Southworths). Ptolemy's "Belisama aest." seems to represent the estuary of the Ribble. Bremetennacum was a Roman fort that guarded a crossing-point of the river at Ribchester.

The banks of the Ribble have been posited as possible locations for King Arthur's sixth battle on the Riber Bassus, and also for his tenth battle, on the banks of a river "Tribruit".

The Cuerdale Hoard, the largest Viking silver hoard ever found outside Russia was discovered in 1840 on the southern bank of a bend of the river, at Cuerdale near Preston. (where Roger and Margery crossed the river on the way to Whalley.)

19. Russet

Undyed fabric in the natural fleece colours - typically greys and browns. About 14 oz per sq yard and well fulled to give a weatherproof surface.

20. Frieze

Undyed fabric in the natural fleece colours - typically greys and browns. Very heavy weight (about 28 oz per sq yard) and very heavily fulled to give a dense weatherproof surface. The inner surface would be friezed or teased up to give better insulation.

21. Salmesbury

On the ride from Preston to Whalley Roger and Margery passed Salmesbury and Roger commented on old John, the recusant.

In the 1590's three Lancashire gentlemen were listed as the dominant recusants in the area with the comment that if thesy could be coverted from Catholicism to the new religion, then the rest of Lancashire would follow. The three were John Towneley of Towneley, near Burnley (and his wife Anne Catterall), Thomas Catterall of Mitton, and John Southorth of Salmesbury. Thomas Catterall evaded persecusion by dying in 1592 after passing his estate (Little Mitton Hall) to his daughter Dorothy who was married to a Sherburne (catholic, Stonyhurst). Towneley and Southworth were fined and imprisoned, in Manchester and then London. They were finally released after efforts by Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Pauls, but required to remain in London as they could do great damage in Lancashire.

Walshingham wrote to the Bishop of Chester saying he had heard that Southworth also proposed to disinherit his son (to avoid requisition for recusancy by the king) and instructed the Bishop to prevent it.

The village's name is derived from the Old English sceamol, meaning ledge and burh meaning fortification, hence literally "ledge fortification". It may also be that the name at least partly derives from the Roman name for the River Ribble and its eponymous Celtic deity, Belisama. Samlesbury Hall is a Manor house built in 1325 which has been many things since then including a public house and girls boarding school, but since 1925, when it was saved from being demolished for its timber, it has been administered by a registered charitable trust, the Samlesbury Hall Trust. This Grade I listed medieval manor house attracts over 50,000 visitors each year.

Samlesbury parish church is dedicated to St. Leonard the Less and was founded in 1096. The church contains a Norman tub font, a medieval bell, and Sir Thomas Southworth's funerary armour dating from 1546. It also has a church chest, a two-decker pulpit and a complete set of box pews dating from the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Roman Catholic church is St Mary and St John Southworth. (sounds like John Southworth was made a saint - a nice local touch)

We meet another Southworth in Mist Over Pendle.

The Samlesbury witches - Jane Southworth, Jennet Brierley, and Ellen Brierley - were accused of child murder and cannibalism and tried at Lancaster Assizes on 19 August 1612, in the same series of trials as the Pendle witches. All three were found not guilty in a trial which one historian has described as "largely a piece of anti-Catholic propaganda".

22. St Paul's Cross

(alternative spellings - "Powles Crosse") was a preaching cross and open-air pulpit in the grounds of Old St Paul's Cathedral, City of London.

Bishop Thomas Kempe rebuilt the cross in the late 15th century in grand architectural form, as an open air pulpit of mostly timber with room for 3 or 4 inside it, set on stone steps with a lead-covered roof and a low surrounding wall. From here was preached much of the English Reformation, along with many major events in London's history, with sermons preached here usually printed and thus redistributed to a wider audience.

The first sermon preached here after Catholic Queen Mary's accession (by Bishop Bourne) provoked a riot - a dagger was thrown at Bourne (but missed him, sticking in one of the side posts) and he had to be rushed to safety in St Paul's School. Thus, Mary's successor Elizabeth I kept the pulpit empty for a long time after her accession to keep the people from riot. However, when it finally came to Dr Samson's appearance at the Cross to announce Elizabeth's religious policy, the keys to the Cross's pulpit were found to be mislaid and, when the Lord Mayor ordered the door to be forced, it was found to be too dirty and badly maintained for use on this occasion.

The Puritans destroyed the cross and pulpit in 1643 during the First English Civil War. The cross (but not the pulpit) was reconstructed in 1910.

23. Whalley

The parish church of St Mary and All Saints dates to 628 in the period when St. Paulinus was said to have preached at Whalley. The church has a large number of notable misericords - eighteen 15th century and four Victorian, the former known to have originated at Whalley Abbey. The church-yard has three Anglo-Saxon crosses.

Whalley Abbey

The village has the ruins of Whalley Abbey, a 14th-century Cistercian abbey. The monks of Whalley described the site of their abbey beneath Whalley Nab on the banks of the Calder as Locus Benedictus - a blessed place. The abbey of Stanlowe near Warrington committed to a re-location to Whalley in 1296, but the first stone was only laid by Henry de Lacy in June 1296, and part of the site consecrated by the Bishop of Whithern in 1306. Building proceeded slowly and it was not until 1330 that the foundation stone was laid, and the remainder of the abbey was not finished until the 140 0s. Abbot Paslew was executed for high treason for his part in the Pilgrimage of Grace (1437). After the dissolution the abbey was largely demolished and the Bishop's residence converted to a country house. It is now the Retreat and Conference House of the Diocese of Blackburn. The ruins of the abbey have been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building, and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

24. Yellow Starch

Mistress Turner (5 January 1576 - 15 November 1615) was born Anne Norton on 5 January 1576, one of ten children to Thomas and Margaret Norton of Hinxton, Cambridgeshire. She started a fashion for using yellow starch on ruffs.

Mistress Anne Turner was the widow of a respectable London doctor. She was eventually hanged at Tyburn for her role in the famous 1613 poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury.

With overwhelming evidence mounted against her, Turner confessed to her role in the crime. In passing sentence Chief Justice Coke referred to her as "a whore, a bawd, a sorcerer, a witch, a papist, a felon and a murderer". He also ordered her to be hanged in the fashionable starched ruffles she had invented "so that the same might end in shame and detestation."

She was hanged at Tyburn on 15 November 1615. Her hangman, not by coincidence, also wore "bands and cuffs of the same colour." Yellow starch then went out of fashion.

In 1611-12, Margery was at the height of fashion in using Mistress Turner's yellow starch in 1611-2, but 2-3 years later she woulld not be seen using it.

25. Catesby

Robert Catesby (b. in or after 1572 - 8 November 1605) was the leader of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

Born, most probably born in Warwickshire, Catesby was educated in nearby Oxford. His family were prominent recusant Catholics, therefore presumably to avoid swearing the Oath of Supremacy he left college before taking his degree. He married a Protestant in 1593 and fathered two children, one of whom survived and was baptised in a Protestant church, but in 1598, following the deaths of his father and wife, he may have reverted to Catholicism. In 1601 he took part in the Essex Rebellion but was captured and fined, after which he sold his estate at Chastleton.

26. Quorum

Justices are appointed, jointly and severally, to keep the peace; and any two or more of them to enquire of and determine felonies and other misdemeanors, in which number some particular justices, or one of them, are directed to be always present; the words of the commission running, quorum aliquem vestrum unum esse volumus, whence the persons so named are usually called justices of the quorum, and formerly it was the custom to appoint only a select number of justices, eminent for their rank, or their skill and discretion, to be of the quorum.

Qualifications for Justices: they were directed to be of the best reputation, and most worthy men of the county, of the most sufficient knights, esquires, and gentlemen of the law. In the 18th year of king Henry VI a qualification of twenty pounds per annum was levied on all appointees to this office.